Mount Rushmore History - USA

Mount Rushmore is a famous mountain in the United States in South Dakota. Mount Rushmore has four greatest presidents heads carved into the United States, namely George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln. Gutzon Borglum1927 and ended in 1941.

Doane Robinson of the South Dakota Historical Society wants a monument to be built in South Dakota in order to help the country's economy by attracting tourism. In 1923, he proposed that the monument should be built of granite in the Black Hills of South Dakota. South Dakota Senator Peter Norbeck, approved the proposal and come from funds federaluntuk helped complete the project. Robinson asked for an architect and sculptor Gutzon Borglum to sculpt and design the monument. Borglum decided to use Mount Rushmore to making sculpture, as it seems This is the easy part to do it.

Gutzon Borglum, after deciding the location of the statue, decided to create this monument consists of four Presidents of the United States. He chose the two most popular president in history, George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. He chose Thomas Jefferson because Jefferson makes the size of the United States nearly doubled with the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 (which became South Dakota). The last President Borglum chose is Theodore Roosevelt, which was proposed by President Calvin Coolidge (who insists there are two Republicans and Democrats represented only one.) because of Theodore Roosevelt who introduced the National Park Service.The original design was Borglum sculpture of four presidents to their waists, but time and money is only provided for their heads.

Construction Period :

Spoiler for President Coolidge at the 1927 dedication:

Spoiler for Before Carving:

Several hundred workers, who usually worked as a miner, a sculptor, or a rock climber, using dynamite, jackhammering, and sculptors to sculpt a model of the mountain. A rope ladder and built permanently to the top of the mountain. Workers are supported by harnesses attached to ropes.
Sculptor Gutzon Borglum Spoiler for:

Iris of the eye is carved as a hole. A granite cube remaining in each eye to represent a reflection that makes the eyes look more realistic.
Spoiler for models in the original on-site studio:

The model used is a 1:12-inch scale, by making the plot without using a computer
Spoiler for Powderman John Johnson:

Construction began on August 10, 1927.
George Washington

George Washington's is the first head are made. Due to economic instability United States by the Great Depression, the head was completed in seven years, and is dedicated to the public on Independence Day 1934. A large American flag placed on the head of Washington before it was revealed its meaning, and it later became a tradition for each head of the President.

Spoiler for Washington figure under construction:

Spoiler for Construction on the George Washington portrait at Mount Rushmore, c. 1932 :

Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson was the next head, located to the left of Washington. Before the head was finished, Borglum ordered that the head was blown up due to poor quality stone. Chief Jefferson begins again with the right hand of Washington's position. Chief Jefferson dedicated in 1936.

Spoiler for Washington and Jefferson under construction:

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln's head is more of a challenge because of his beard, but his head has been completed at the right end of the cliff, dedicated on September 17, 1937, at the time of the 150th anniversary of the signing of the Constitution of the United States in 1787.

Spoiler for Lincoln figure under construction.: 

Spoiler for Sculpture Maintenance:


Spoiler for View of Washington and Lincoln:

Theodore Roosevelt

While Theodore Roosevelt's head is being built, accommodation for tourists was also built, including plumbing, lighting, and a visitor center. Because not find a suitable stone, the sculptor further cut into, to the mountain. This raises concerns about how much they cut. On July 2, 1939, head of Roosevelt dedicated.

Spoiler for Theodore Roosevelt Construction:


Hall of Records

Spoiler for Aerial View:

Due to an unexpected vulnerability in granite, Lincoln and Jefferson moved from the location of the original design of Borglum. Lincoln Borglum was moved to a place that had planned to include 80 to 100 feet of the inscriptions in the form of the Louisiana Purchase.
To change the inscription, Borglum replace the monument with a similar proportion: Hall of Records [Halls of Records]. Archives Hall consists of a large entrance with a size 80 to 100 feet. granite dome carved directly into the small hole in the back of the head of Lincoln. Borglum made 800 granite steps of the studio up to the entrance of the Hall.

In 1938 Borglum and his crew began to carve this great hall, where he imagined that the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States original stored here. But the combination of hard granite, the occurrence of war in Europe, and the lack of funding makes Borglum dream vanished, although his plans became more complicated when his team rushed to finish this job. When they reached as deep as 70 feet into the granite, Borglum died in March 1941. The monument is considered complete and all the work was closed on October 31 that same year. Although the children Borglum tried for years to memnyelesaikan last dream of their father, it was not until 1998 that the National Park System, together with Borglum's Family, putting "final touches" on the Hall of Records. A titanium metal cabinets mounted on the granite floor of the unfinished hall, and filled with sixteen porcelain enamel panels which include the Constitution of the United States and other important historical documents. Archives Hall entrance can be seen from the west of the monument.




Posting Komentar

Next previous
© 2010 blogger templates by free 7 blogger network